graph Columbia Basin Adult Passage Historical Run Timing Adult Visual Counts Chinook at Bonneville Dam, 3/15 - 5/31

graph run size and middle run duration

graph Columbia Basin Adult Passage Historical Run Timing Adult Visual Counts Chinook at Bonneville Dam, 3/15 - 5/31

graph BON Exposure Index by Quartile

graph Year Cumulative Distribution

graph Year Daily Passage

graph Year Median Diff for 5% Passage

graph Year WaterSup

Northwest River Forecast Center, NOAA, Bonneville Dam (NOAA NWRFC BONO3). Historic water supply conditions: Historical Monthly Water Supply and April-September Yearly Rankings. For information on water supply forecasts: Water Supply Forecasts.

Migration Timing Characteristics
Adult Visual Counts Chinook at Bonneville Dam, 3/15 - 5/31
2010 - 2019
Year Passage Dates Duration
Middle 80%
Days
Duration
Middle 50%
Days
Duration
Middle 90%
Days
Run Size "Today"
(12/01)
Passage %
View Data Water Temperature
Exposure
for Single Year
Water Supply
NWRFC,NOAA
Apr-Sep
Pct Normal
First 5% 10% 25% 50% 75% 90% 95% Last
Year First 5% 10% 25% 50% 75% 90% 95% Last Duration
Middle 80%
Days
Duration
Middle 50%
Days
Duration
Middle 90%
Days
Run Size "Today"
(12/01)
Passage %
View Data Water Temperature
Exposure
for Single Year
Water Supply
NWRFC,NOAA
Apr-Sep
Pct Normal
Passage Dates
2020 1 YTD 03/14               05/30       54449 (YTD)   Graph
Table
105%
Average
(2010 - 2019)
03/15 04/23 04/25 04/30 05/06 05/13 05/21 05/26 05/31 27.2 14.3 34.7 142096.9 100.0%      
Median
(2010 - 2019)
03/15 04/23 04/25 05/01 05/05 05/12 05/22 05/27 05/31 26.5 11 34 145849.0 100.0%      
2019 03/16 04/29 05/01 05/03 05/08 05/16 05/23 05/28 05/31 23 14 30 54656 100.0% Graph
Table
95%
2018 03/16 04/29 05/03 05/06 05/11 05/21 05/25 05/28 05/31 23 16 30 87890 100.0% Graph
Table
113%
2017 03/15 05/02 05/04 05/07 05/20 05/24 05/28 05/29 05/31 25 18 28 83616 100.0% Graph
Table
122%
2016 03/14 04/21 04/23 04/30 05/03 05/12 05/21 05/26 05/30 29 13 36 135770 100.0% Graph
Table
89%
2015 03/15 04/15 04/18 04/21 04/28 05/08 05/23 05/27 05/31 36 18 43 220250 100.0% Graph
Table
69% D
2014 03/15 04/17 04/21 04/28 05/02 05/10 05/22 05/26 05/31 32 13 40 188078 100.0% Graph
Table
106%
2013 03/15 04/22 04/25 04/28 05/03 05/11 05/22 05/27 05/31 28 14 36 83299 100.0% Graph
Table
80%
2012 03/14 04/23 04/25 05/06 05/09 05/14 05/20 05/25 05/30 26 9 33 155928 100.0% Graph
Table
109%
2011 03/15 04/26 04/28 05/01 05/06 05/10 05/16 05/23 05/31 19 10 28 167097 100.0% Graph
Table
116%
2010 03/15 04/14 04/16 04/21 04/29 05/08 05/16 05/26 05/31 31 18 43 244385 100.0% Graph
Table
88%

Notes:

  1. Year 2020 is incomplete. Data presented in Migration Timing Characteristics table is data through today's date.
  2. Data Courtesy of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
  3. Date Calculations:
    1. Query DART database for passage counts by Day of Year (not calendar date).
    2. Based on query results, calculate total number of fish for each year (reported as "Run Size" in table).
    3. Based on query results, calculate cumulative number of fish by day in the year.
    4. Based on query results, calculate the Day of Year when fish passage % is equal to or greater than the target percent, e.g., 5% passage. Passage % for a day = cumulative number of fish for day / total fish in year.
    5. For each individual year target passage percent, first date, and last date results: convert Day of Year to Calendar Date for given year, taking into consideration leap year. Report calendar date in table.
    6. For each individual year middle run duration: 80% duration = 1 + (90% Day of Year - 10% Day of Year), 50% duration = 1 + (75% Day of Year - 25% Day of Year), 90% duration = 1 + (95% Day of Year - 5% Day of Year). Report days in table.
    7. For each target passage percent, first date, and last date: calculate average Day of Year for that passage target percent from each individual year Day of Year values. Convert result into integer. Treat integer as Day of Year and convert into Calendar Date for a non-leap year. Report as Average.
    8. For each target passage percent, first date, and last date: calculate median Day of Year for that passage target percent from individual Day of Year values. Convert median Day of Year into Calendar Date for a non-leap year. Report as Median.
    9. Individual year calendar date values reported in table honor leap year. Calculated calendar date values (Average and Median) treat results as non-leap year dates.
  4. Water Supply historical, current, and forecast data provided courtesy of Northwest River Forecast Center, NOAA. In the Migration Timing Table, after the percent normal value the 'W' indicates the year is ranked as one of the 5 wettest years for Apr-Sep. The 'D' indicates the year is ranked as one of the 5 driest years for Apr-Sep.

Critical temperature thresholds for adult salmonids in the Columbia River

Compiled by: W. Nicholas Beer, 2016

Apart from the impact of high temperatures that may lead to metabolic stress (Brett 1995) or disease (McCullough 1999), temperatures have an impact on travel rates (Bjornn and Reiser 1991). There are two components to this. First, bioenergetic efficiency allows fish to swim most rapidly in optimal temperature waters (Hinch and Rand 2000). E. g., Columbia River Chinook and Fraser River sockeye swim most rapidly near 16°C (Lee et al. 2003; Salinger and Anderson 2006). Second, sufficiently high temperatures delay migration, e.g. Chinook are known to slow their migration above 20°C (Goniea et al. 2006), and several species completely cease migration above 21°C including Chinook, steelhead and sockeye (McCullough 1999; Quinn et al. 1997) .

Although individual tolerances to temperature are determined partly on acclimation temperatures, diel variation, spatial variability and fish size, temperatures above 21°C are widely regarded as detrimental to migration. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommends using a metric called the “7 day average of daily maximums” (a.k.a 7DADM) which “can be used to protect against acute effects, such as lethality and migration blockage conditions” (EPA 2003). This is 20°C for salmon/trout migration.

Finally, extreme temperatures lead directly to mortality. These thresholds are near 24°C and 25°C for steelhead and Chinook respectively.

References

Bjornn, T. C., and D. W. Reiser. 1991. Habitat requirements of salmonids in streams. Pages 751 in W. R. Meehan, editor. Influences of Forest and Rangeland Managment on salmonid fishes and their habitats. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Brett, J. R. 1995. Energetics. Pages 3-68 in C. Groot, L. Margolis, and W. C. Clarke, editors. Physiological ecology of Pacific salmon. Univeristy of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, B.C.

EPA. 2003. EPA Region 10 Guidance for Pacific Northwest State and Tribal Temperature Water Quality Standards. Region 10 Ofice of Water, Seattle, WA.

Goniea, T. M., and coauthors. 2006. Behavioral Thermoregulation and Slowed Migration by Adult Fall Chinook Salmon in Response to High Columbia River Water Temperatures. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135(2):408-419.

Hinch, S. G., and P. S. Rand. 2000. Optimal swimming speeds and forward-assisted propulsion: energy-conserving behaviours of upriver-migrating adult salmon. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 57:2470-2478.

Lee, C. G., and coauthors. 2003. The effect of temperature on swimming performance and oxygen consumption in adult sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon stocks. Journal of Experimental Biology 206:3239-3251.

McCullough, D. A. 1999. A Review and Synthesis of Effects of Alterations to the Water Temperature Regime on Freshwater Life Stages of Salmonids, with Special Reference to Chinook Salmon.

Quinn, T. P., S. Hodgson, and C. Peven. 1997. Temperature, flow, and the migration of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in the Columbia River. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54(6):1349-1360.

Salinger, D. H., and J. J. Anderson. 2006. Effects of Water Temperature and Flow on Adult Salmon Migration Swim Speed and Delay. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135(1):188-199.

Exposure Index

exposure index equation

  • Fishj = The number of fish observed on a day j. Prerequisite: River Parameter data on day j.
  • RiverValuej = The observed value for the River Parameter on day j.
  • TotalFish = The number of fish observed at the selected Project during the 'Total' period. Prerequisite: River Parameter data on same days as Fish data.
  • firstDay = First day of the 'Total' period.
  • lastDay = Last day of the 'Total' period.

DART Data Citation
Columbia River DART, Columbia Basin Research, University of Washington. (2020). Columbia Basin Adult Passage Historical Run Timing. Available from http://www.cbr.washington.edu/dart/query/adult_hrt
Generated
01 Dec 2020 15:49:43 PST. Columbia River DART (Data Access in Real Time) www.cbr.washington.edu/dart.