Biological monitoring is a relatively easy science, but one that takes time to learn well. SalmonWeb incorporates the components to build a good monitoring program: setting up a quality assurance plan, selecting sampling sites, collecting benthic invertebrate samples, sorting and identifying the organisms, and summarizing the data.
When to Sample: Because SalmonWeb is designed to investigate change from year to year, sampling occurs once a year. A Fall sampling season, from mid August to mid October, allows monitors to sample when stream levels are at their lowest AND before most salmon runs occur. Sampling should be completed before adult salmon return to spawn.
The workshop participants will:
Checklist of materials:
Sampling Protocol for Benthic Invertebrates
Locate stream reach to be sampled. Find a riffle (fast moving water over rock or cobble substrate, surface water should be broken) near the middle part of the stream. Riffle should be long enough to accommodate three replicate samples. Ideal sampling locations consist of rocks 5 to 10 cm in diameter sitting on top of pebbles. Substrates dominated by rocks larger than 50 cm in diameter should be avoided.
Sample within main flow of the stream. Sample at water depths of 10 to 40 cm. Depth, flow and substrate type should be similar for the three replicate samples collected in the riffle. Begin sampling downstream and proceed upstream for the three replicates.
Avoid bridges and other large human-made structural features. If unavoidable, sample at least 50 meters upstream of a bridge and 200 meters (more would be better) downstream of a bridge.
Write down the exact location of the sample site. Use meter tape to measure distance from nearest landmark.
Sampling teams may range from 2 to 4 people. Actual collection of macroinvertebrates requires 2 people. Others can assist with equipment, labeling collections and other duties.
Place Surber sampler on the selected spot with the opening of the nylon net facing upstream. Brace the frame and hold it firmly on the creek bottom.
Lift the larger rocks resting within the frame and brush off crawling or attached loosely organisms so that they drift into the net. After "cleaning" the rocks, place them in a bucket.
Once the larger rocks are removed, disturb the substrate vigorously with a trowel or large spike for 60 seconds. This disturbance should extend to a depth of about 10 cm to loosen organisms in the interstitial spaces, washing them into the net.
Lift Surber out of the water: Tilt the net up and out of the water while keeping the open end upstream. This helps to wash the organisms into the receptacle. Drop a piece of weighted flagging tape to mark the location of the first replicate sample.
On the creek bank, empty contents of Surber into large bucket. Rinse Surber and empty into bucket until all animals are removed. Great care should be taken in this step to collect and preserve all organisms from the Surber sampler as well as from the rocks and water in the bucket. Use of a magnifying glass and tweezers is essential. Rinse bucket through sieve to remove water from sample. Pick out large debris (sticks and leaves) after carefully removing any invertebrates.
Use spatula to move sample from sieve into a plastic vial. Fill vial to the top with isopropyl alcohol. Put label on inside of vial with name of sampler, date, location, and replicate number. Write location and date on top of vial lid. Place vial in a Ziploc bag labeled with the same information.
Collect replicate samples
Return to the location of the first sample, walk upstream and collect another sample of invertebrates. Leave another flagged marker and process the sample as above. Repeat this process once more for a total of three replicate samples from each site location. Each replicate should be labeled (e.g., #1, #2, #3) and archived separately.
* Protocol furnished by L. Fore, 1997.
Download the Site Description Form in Word or PDF version to print.
Weather ___ Sunny ___ Cloudy ___ Partly Cloudy ___ Raining ___ Foggy
Longitude ________degrees __________minutes __________seconds
Latitude __________degrees __________minutes __________seconds
USGS map used ________________________(include height and width scale)_______________________
Land Uses ___ Urban ___ Suburban ___ Agricultural ___ Grazing ___ Forest
Channelized ___ Yes ___ No
Inorganic substrate ___ Boulders ___ Rubble ___ Gravel ___ Sand ___ Silt ___ Clay
Organic substrate ___ Mud/Muck ___ Detritus ___ Logs/Limbs ___ Pulpy Peat ___ Fibrous Peat
Bank Slope ___ Steep ___ Moderate ___ Slight ___ Other ________________________
Bank Stability ___ Stable ___ Slightly Eroded ___ Moderately Eroded ___ Severely Eroded
Bank Material ___ Clay ___ Rock ___ Dirt ___ Mud ___ Stones ___ Other__________________
Stream Shading _________________(%)
Undercut Banks ___ No ___ Yes
Air Temperature _________________(C)
Water Temperature (at site)_________________(C)
Water Temperature (1 mile upstream) _________________(C)
Surface Oils ___ None ___ Some ___ Lots
Water Odors ___ Normal ___ Sewage ___ Petroleum ___ Chemical ___ Other__________
Stream Width (at sampling site) _________________(Meters)
Surface Velocity _________________(Meters/second)
Water Depth _________________(Meters)
Riffle Length _________________(Meters)
Riffle Width _________________(Meters)
Distance between replicates within riffle _________________(Meters)
Additional Notes on this form
|Saturday, 16-Dec-2000 14:28:23 PST|